Name Description
FAT32 This strange term refers to the way Windows stores data on your hard drive. "FAT" stands for "File Allocation Table," which keeps track of all your files and helps the computer locate them on the disk. Even if a file gets fragmented (split up into various areas on the disk), the file allocation table still can keep track of it. FAT32 is an improvement to the original FAT system, since it uses more bits to identify each cluster on the disk. This helps the computer locate files easier and allows for smaller clusters, which improves the efficiency of your hard disk. FAT32 supports up to 2 terabytes of hard disk storage.
Fiber Optic Cable: This is a cable made up of super-thin filaments of glass or other transparent materials that can carry beams of light. Because a fiber-optic cable is light-based, data can be sent through it at the speed of light. Using a laser transmitter that encodes frequency signals into pulses of light, ones and zeros are sent through the cable. The receiving end of the transmission translates the light signals back into data which can be read by a computer.
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\nBecause fiber optics are based entirely on beams of light, they are less susceptible to noise and interference than other data-transfer mediums such as copper wires or telephone lines. However, the cables are fragile and are usually placed underground, which makes them difficult and expensive to install. Some fiber-optic cables are installed above ground, but if they break, they often need to be completely replaced, which is not cheap. While copper wires can be spliced and mended as many times as needed, it is much harder to fix glass fiber-optic cables.
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File Extension: A file extension is the last part of a filename, after the dot (e.g. ".pdf"). Most file extensions are three characters long, but they can be shorter or longer as well. File extensions are used to define the file type of each file. The operating system uses this information to select which application will open the file and choose the appropriate icon for the file.
File Format: The structure of a specific type of computer file. Different file formats are associated with different file types and programs. For example, JPEG and TIFF file formats are associated with image files. Their codes are JPG and TIF respectively. Files of a particular format are given a specific file extension in the form of a three letter code. 
Filename: A filename is a text string that identifies a file. Every file stored on a computer's hard disk has a filename that helps identify the file within a given folder. Therefore, each file within a specific folder must have a different filename, while files in different folders can have the same name.
Filter: 1.) A piece of glass or gelatin placed in the optical path that modifies the wavelength or light that ultimately reaches the sensor. An example would be a hydrogen-alpha filter that only allows the light of the hydrogen-alpha wavelength to pass.
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\n2.) A piece of software that performs particular algorithms on digital data. An example would be a Gaussian blur filter in Photoshop that blurs an image.
Finder: The Finder serves as the primary graphical user interface (GUI) for Macintosh computers. It includes the desktop, icons, a menu bar, and the Dock. The Finder allows users to open windows and manage files and folders. While the Finder is technically a Mac OS X application, it automatically loads at startup and is always running.
Firewall: A computer firewall limits the data that can pass through it and protects a networked server or client machine from damage by unauthorized users.
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\nFirewalls can be either hardware or software-based. A router is a good example of a hardware device that has a built-in firewall.
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Firmware: Firmware is a software program or set of instructions programmed on a hardware device. It provides the necessary instructions for how the device communicates with the other computer hardware.
Flash Drive: Flash drives have many names - jump drives, thumb drives, pen drives, and USB keychain drives. Regardless of what you call them, they all refer to the same thing, which is a small data storage device that uses flash memory and has a built-in USB connection.
Flash: Flash is a multimedia technology used for creating animations and interactive websites. Web developers often use Flash to add dynamic content that is not possible with HTML or other scripting languages. Some examples include splash screen animations, YouTube videos, and interactive song playlists.
Focal Length: The distance from the lens or mirror in an optical system and the focal plane where the light is focused.
Folder: Folders on your hard drive store files. These files can be documents, programs, scripts, libraries, and any other kind of computer file you can think of. Folders can also store other folders, which may store more files or other folders, and so on.
Format: Formatting a disk involves rewriting the directory structure, or file system, of a disk. All disks must be formatted using a supported file system in order to work with a computer. Therefore, it may be necessary to format (or reformat) a disk if it is not formatted for the computer you are using. While the formatting process technically does not erase the files on the disk, it does make them inaccessible, since they are no longer part of the directory structure. Therefore, make sure you don't format or reformat a disk that contains important data.
FOV: Field of view is the ​amount of a scene that is captured by a given focal-length lens. Wide-angle, short-focal length lenses capture a wide field of view. Telephoto lenses and telescopes capture a very narrow field of view. The field of view is usually specified as an angle that depends on the size of the sensor. For example, a lens or telescope of 500mm focal length will cover a field of view of 4 degrees, 17 arc minutes, 43 arc seconds by 2 degrees 51 arc minutes, 51 arc seconds with a Canon 20Da DSLR camera sensor that is 22.5 x 15mm.
Frame: 1.) Used as a noun, a frame is an image or an exposure. Derived from the days of film where images were taken on a roll of film and each individual image was called a frame. In digital astrophotograhy, you can have light frames, dark frames, bias frames and flat-field frames. 
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\n 2.) Used as a verb, to frame means to compose the subject inside of the viewfinder. For example, you want to "frame" the Orion Nebula so that none of the faint outer nebulosity gets cut off.